Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are the most commonly used drugs worldwide and their availability over-the-counter is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of their use as well as the awareness of the associated risk of side effects in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to the patients at general practice (GP) offices. We found that 88.5% of the CKD and 97.1% of the GP group used NSAIDs and/or analgesics ( < 0.0001). Paracetamol was chosen the most often by both study groups, but the proportion of patients taking paracetamol was significantly higher in the CKD group ( < 0.006). On the contrary, the proportion of patients taking ibuprofen was significantly higher in GP group ( < 0.0001). Furthermore, almost 37% of CKD and 60% of GP patients never consult with their doctor before taking NSAIDs or analgesics. The influence of advertisements on the decision to take these drugs was found to be marginal in both groups. In conclusion, the NSAIDs and/or analgesics use is very common. The differences between the studied cohorts in self-decision making and the type of drugs used between the studied cohorts warrant tailored educational approaches.