What is the central question of this study? Peritoneal injury can result in a persistent fibroproliferative process in the abdominal cavity, causing pain and loss of function of internal organs. This study aimed to demonstrate the use of sodium butyrate (NaBu) as a potential agent to attenuate peritoneal fibrosis induced by a synthetic matrix. What is the main finding and its importance? Our findings provide the first evidence that NaBu attenuates the inflammatory, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis axes involved in the formation of peritoneal fibrovascular tissue, indicating the potential of this compound to ameliorate peritoneal fibrosis.