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Papers of the Week

Papers: 1 Apr 2023 - 7 Apr 2023




Front Hum Neurosci



The role of the salience network in cognitive and affective deficits.


Schimmelpfennig J, Topczewski J, Zajkowski W, Jankowiak-Siuda K


Analysis and interpretation of studies on cognitive and affective dysregulation often draw upon the network paradigm, especially the Triple Network Model, which consists of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the salience network (SN). DMN activity is primarily dominant during cognitive leisure and self-monitoring processes. The FPN peaks during task involvement and cognitive exertion. Meanwhile, the SN serves as a dynamic “switch” between the DMN and FPN, in line with salience and cognitive demand. In the cognitive and affective domains, dysfunctions involving SN activity are connected to a broad spectrum of deficits and maladaptive behavioral patterns in a variety of clinical disorders, such as depression, insomnia, narcissism, PTSD (in the case of SN hyperactivity), chronic pain, and anxiety, high degrees of neuroticism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism, and neurodegenerative illnesses, bipolar disorder (in the case of SN hypoactivity). We discuss behavioral and neurological data from various research domains and present an integrated perspective indicating that these conditions can be associated with a widespread disruption in predictive coding at multiple hierarchical levels. We delineate the fundamental ideas of the brain network paradigm and contrast them with the conventional modular method in the first section of this article. Following this, we outline the interaction model of the key functional brain networks and highlight recent studies coupling SN-related dysfunctions with cognitive and affective impairments.