Chronic and neuropathic pain are a widespread burden. Incomplete understanding of underlying pathomechanisms is one crucial factor for insufficient treatment. Recently, impairment of the blood nerve barrier (BNB) has emerged as one key aspect of pain initiation and maintenance. In this narrative review, we discuss several mechanisms and putative targets for novel treatment strategies. Cells such as pericytes, local mediators like netrin-1 and specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), will be covered as well as circulating factors including the hormones cortisol and oestrogen and microRNAs. They are crucial in either the BNB or similar barriers and associated with pain. While clinical studies are still scarce, these findings might provide valuable insight into mechanisms and nurture development of therapeutic approaches.