During an infection, inflammation mobilizes immune cells to eliminate the pathogen and protect the host. However, inflammation can be detrimental when exacerbated and/or chronic. The resolution phase of the inflammatory process is actively orchestrated by the specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), generated from omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that bind to different G-protein coupled receptors to exert their activity. As immunoresolvents, SPMs regulate the influx of leukocytes to the inflammatory site, reduce cytokine and chemokine levels, promote bacterial clearance, inhibit the export of viral transcripts, enhance efferocytosis, stimulate tissue healing, and lower antibiotic requirements. Metabolomic studies have evaluated SPM levels in patients and animals during infection, and temporal regulation of SPMs seems to be essential to properly coordinate a response against the microorganism. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SPM biosynthesis and classifications, endogenous production profiles and their effects in animal models of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections.