Central Post-Stroke Pain (CPSP) is a primary sequelae of stroke that can develop in the body part corresponding to the cerebrovascular lesion after stroke, most typically after ischemic stroke but also after hemorrhagic stroke. The pathogenesis of CPSP is currently unknown, and research into its mechanism is ongoing. To summarize current research on the CPSP mechanism and provide guidance for future studies. Use “central post-stroke pain,” “stroke AND thalamic pain,” “stroke AND neuropathic pain,” “post-stroke thalamic pain” as the search term. The search was conducted in the PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, summarizing and classifying the retrieved mechanism studies. The mechanistic studies on CPSP are extensive, and we categorized the included mechanistic studies and summarized them in terms of relevant pathway studies, relevant signals and receptors, relevant neural tissues, and described endoplasmic reticulum stress and other relevant studies, as well as summarized the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. Studies have shown that the pathogenesis of CPSP involves the entire spinal-thalamo-cortical pathway and that multiple substances in the nervous system are involved in the formation and development of CPSP. Among them, the relevant receptors and signals are the hotspot of research, and the discovery and exploration of different receptors and signals have provided a wide range of therapeutic ideas for CPSP. As a very effective treatment, acupuncture is less studied regarding the analgesic mechanism of CPSP, and further experimental studies are still needed.