Endometriosis affects approximately 10% of premenopausal women worldwide. Despite its impact on quality of life, the delay in diagnosing this chronic disease is well known. Many patients with endometriosis report having suffered from dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain in adolescence or at a young age. However, this painful symptom is often highly underestimated and considered a normal and transient symptom in young women. The real prevalence of endometriosis in adolescence remains uncertain. Some authors recently described at least one ultrasound feature of endometriosis in 13.3% of a general population of adolescent girls, which increased to 35.3% in young girls with severe dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is classified as primary dysmenorrhea or secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as a menstrual pain without organic disease, while secondary dysmenorrhea is defined as a menstrual pain associated with organic pelvic pathology. Since endometriosis represents the main cause of secondary dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young women, it is important to determine whether the patient has primary dysmenorrhea or additional suggestive symptoms related to endometriosis. Endometriosis in adolescent patients is a challenging problem with clinical and pathological differences compared with its presentation in premenopausal women. Adolescents and young women with dysmenorrhea and painful symptoms that suggest endometriosis should be referred to dedicated endometriosis centers for an early diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical management. This paper aims to describe the role of dysmenorrhea in adolescents and the management of these young patients to confirm or exclude endometriosis.