Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts on P2 purinergic receptors as an extracellular signaling molecule. P2 purinergic receptors include P2X ionotropic receptors and P2Y metabotropic receptors. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) and macrophages express P2X and P2Y receptors. Inflammatory cytokines and pro-nociceptive mediators are released by activated macrophages and SGCs, which can act on neurons to promote excitability and firing. In the primary sensory ganglia, in response to signals of injury, SGCs and macrophages accumulate around primary sensory neurons, forming a macrophage-SGC-neuron triad. In addition to affecting the pathological alterations of inflammation -related neuropathic pain, inflammatory cytokines and pro-nociceptive mediators are released by the action of ATP on P2X and P2Y receptors in macrophages and SGCs. Macrophages and SGCs work together to enhance and prolong neuropathic pain. The macrophage-SGC-neuron triad communicates with each other through ATP and other inflammatory mediators and maintains and promotes the initiation and development of inflammation related-neuropathic pain.