Recent clinical research suggests that repeated use of opioid pain medications can increase neuropathic pain in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). Therefore, it is significant to elucidate the exact mechanisms of HIV-related chronic pain. HIV infection and chronic morphine induce proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α acting through tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI). HIV coat proteins and/or chronic morphine increase mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). Recently, emerging cytoplasmic caspase-11 is defined as a noncanonical inflammasome and can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we tested our hypothesis that HIV coat glycoprotein gp120 with chronic morphine activates a TNFRI-mtROS-caspase-11 pathway in rats, which increases neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain.