Ulinastatin, a broad spectrum of serine protease inhibitor, has been found to alleviate neuropathic pain (NPP). However, its mechanism is not completely clear. Here, a sciatic nerve ligation rat model and BV2 microglial cells were used to investigate the effect of Ulinastatin on the activation of microglia and P2Y12 receptors in vivo and in vitro. Levels of P2Y12 receptor and NF-κB (P65) expression in the dorsal horn of the lumbar enlargement region of the spinal cord and BV2 cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry and double-label immunofluorescence assays. Levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in cell culture medium and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined by ELISA. The results showed that Ulinastatin reduced the release of inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α by inhibiting the activation of spinal microglia. Ulinastatin down-regulated P2Y12 receptor and NF-κB (P65) expression in the spinal microglia of the chronic constrictive injury model. The results indicated that Ulinastatin may attenuate the activation of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury by inhibiting the activation of P2Y12 receptor signal pathway in microglia. NF-kB may play a key role in the mechanism of Ulinastatin.