The purpose of this study is to determine the possible alterations that may occur in the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and macular thickness in patients with chronic migraines compared with healthy controls. Hence, we examined some of the possibilities that are offered by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to study different neurological diseases and to study its application, in this case, how it may be applied to patients with chronic migraines. This was an observational cross-sectional study in adults aged 18-65 years. The study group consisted of 90 patients (90 eyes) with chronic migraines who met the inclusion criteria, and 90 healthy controls (90 eyes) matched for age and sex. Retinal thickness was measured by spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). The thickness of the superior quadrant of the peripapillary RNFL, as well as the mean thickness in the macula, RNFL macular, and GCL was significantly thinner in chronic migraine patients than in healthy controls ( ≤ 0.05). Chronic migraines are associated with a decrease in retinal thickness which is detectable by an OCT diagnostic technique. The quantification of the axonal damage could be used as a biomarker to help in the diagnosis and monitoring of this pathology. Further studies will be needed to confirm these findings.