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Papers: 10 Dec 2022 - 16 Dec 2022

2022 Nov 15

Eur J Radiol


Endometriosis: A multimodal imaging review.


Quesada J, Härmä K, Reid S, Rao T, Lo G, Yang N, Karia S, Lee E, Borok N
Eur J Radiol. 2022 Nov 15; 158:110610.
PMID: 36502625.


Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized endometrial-like tissue present outside of the uterus, affecting approximately 10% of reproductive age women. It is associated with abdomino-pelvic pain, infertility and other non – gynecologic symptoms, making it a challenging diagnosis. Several guidelines have been developed by different international societies to diagnose and classify endometriosis, yet areas of controversy and uncertainty remains. Transvaginal ultrasound (TV-US) is the first-line imaging modality used to identify endometriosis due to its accessibility and cost-efficacy. Enhanced sonographic techniques are emerging as a dedicated technique to evaluate deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), depending on the expertise of the sonographer as well as the location of the lesions. MRI is an ideal complementary modality to ultrasonography for pre-operative planning as it allows for a larger field-of-view when required and it has high levels of reproducibility and tolerability. Typically, endometriotic lesions appear hypoechoic on ultrasonography. On MRI, classical features include DIE T2 hypointensity, endometrioma T2 hypointensity and T1 hyperintensity, while superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE) is described as a small focus of T1 hyperintensity. Imaging has become a critical tool in the diagnosis, surveillance and surgical planning of endometriosis. This literature review is based mostly on studies from the last two decades and aims to provide a detailed overview of the imaging features of endometriosis as well as the advances and usefulness of different imaging modalities for this condition.