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Papers of the Week

2022 Nov

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci



How to recognize and respond to monkeypox 2022 outbreak in non-endemic countries: a narrative review.


Qiu Z-Y, Tao Y-H, Zheng S-L, Sun X-D, Chi Y-H, Sun X, Wang J-R
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2022 Nov; 26(22):8620-8630.
PMID: 36459045.


In May 2022, cases of monkeypox were reported in non-monkeypox endemic countries such as Europe and the United States. As of 26 May, a cumulative total of 257 laboratory-confirmed cases and approximately 120 suspected cases had been reported to WHO from non-monkeypox endemic countries. This event immediately caused great concern and alarm to the WHO and national virologists. This paper aims to summarize the epidemiological and clinical features of previous monkeypox virus infections and the current local outbreaks in non-monkeypox endemic countries and propose countermeasures to control the current localized infections in non-monkeypox endemic areas as soon as possible. We reviewed the literature and websites related to monkeypox. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and African Journals Online using the medical subject terms "monkeypox", "monkeypox virus", "monkeypox outbreak", "non-monkeypox endemic areas", "clinical features", "epidemiology", "transmission", and "infection". We found that monkeypox is a zoonotic disease of forest animals that has occurred mainly in West and Central Africa since the first case was reported in the Congo in 1970, with occasional cases spreading to countries such as the United States and Europe. It is common among students, housekeepers, hunters, farmers and housewives. It is more common in males than females, occurs below middle age, and is more common in children under 10. The incubation period is 5 to 21 days, and the rash usually appears within 1 to 3 days after the onset of fever. Clinical manifestations include fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, headache, muscle pain and unusual weakness. Most patients have mild symptoms that last from 2 to 4 weeks. The source of the sudden outbreak in Europe and the United States is currently unknown and occurs mostly in homosexuals who have sex with men (MSM). Outbreaks of monkeypox virus infection in non-monkeypox endemic areas have received widespread attention and focus. We believe that a scientific response to the transmission route of monkeypox virus and, where necessary, vaccination of high-risk groups against the monkeypox smallpox will control infection in non-monkeypox endemic areas.