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Papers of the Week

2022 Nov 28

ACS Appl Bio Mater

Noninvasive Delivery of Self-Regenerating Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles to Modulate Oxidative Stress in the Retina.


Shin CS, Veettil R A, Sakthivel TS, Adumbumkulath A, Lee R, Zaheer M, Kolanthai E, Seal S, Acharya G
ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2022 Nov 28.
PMID: 36441967.


Diseases affecting the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, and retinal vein occlusions, are currently treated by the intravitreal injection of drug formulations. These disease pathologies are driven by oxidative damage due to chronic high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the retina. Intravitreal injections often induce retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage, and endophthalmitis. Furthermore, the severe eye pain associated with these injections lead to patient noncompliance and treatment discontinuation. Hence, there is a critical need for the development of a noninvasive therapy that is effective for a prolonged period for treating retinal diseases. In this study, we developed a noninvasive cerium oxide nanoparticle (CNP) delivery wafer (Cerawafer) for the modulation of ROS in the retina. We fabricated Cerawafer loaded with CNP and determined its SOD-like enzyme-mimetic activity and ability to neutralize ROS generated in vitro. We demonstrated Cerawafer's ability to deliver CNP in a noninvasive fashion to the retina in healthy mouse eyes and the CNP retention in the retina for more than a week. Our studies have demonstrated the in vivo efficacy of the Cerawafer to modulate ROS and associated down-regulation of VEGF expression in the retinas of very-low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (vldlr-/-) mouse model. The development of a Cerawafer nanotherapeutic will fulfill a hitherto unmet need. Currently, there is no such therapeutic available, and the development of a Cerawafer nanotherapeutic will be a major advancement in the treatment of retinal diseases.