Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a third-generation platinum compound with clinical activity in multiple solid tumors. Due to the repetition of chemotherapy cycle, OXA-induced chronic neuropathy presenting as paresthesia and pain. This study explored the neuropathy of chemotherapy pain and investigated the analgesic effect of 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) on the pain behavior of OXA-induced rats. The chemotherapy pain rat model was established by the five consecutive administration of OXA (intraperitoneal, 4 mg/kg). After the establishment of OXA-induced rats, the pain behavior test, inflammatory signal analysis and mitochondrial function measurement were conducted. OXA-induced rats exhibited mechanical allodynia and spinal inflammatory infiltration. Our fluorescence and western blot analysis revealed spinal astrocytes were activated in OXA rats with up-regulation of astrocytic markers. In addition, NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated inflammatory signal cascade was also activated. Inflammation was triggered by dysfunctional mitochondria which represented by increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) level and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Intrathecally injection of 2-BP significantly attenuated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediated mitochondrial fission, recovered mitochondrial function, suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome cascade, and consequently decreased mechanical pain sensitivity. For cell research, 2-BP treatment significantly reversed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced mitochondria membrane potential deficiency and high reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. These findings indicate 2-BP decreases spinal inflammation and relieves OXA-induced neuropathic pain via reducing Drp1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.