Cognitive impairment (CI), an intermediate phase between the decline in physiological cognition and dementia, is known to be mediated by a variety of risk and protective factors, with age being the most influential of these. The multifactorial nature of CI and the worldwide phenomenon of an aging population makes decoupling old age from disease through the concept of healthy aging (HA) a matter of major interest. Focusing on psychosocial variables and psychological constructs, here we designed and piloted a data collection booklet (DeCo-B) to assess CI and HA from a holistic perspective. The DeCo-B comprises six sections: sociodemographic factors, CI, meaning in life, psychosocial factors, health problems, and lifestyle. The estimated prevalence of CI and HA in our cohort were 24.4% and 6.6%, respectively. Spearman correlations mainly identified pairwise associations between the meaning in life domains and psychosocial variables. Moreover, age, marital status, purpose in life, resilience, chronic pain, cognitive reserve, and obstructive sleep apnea were significantly associated with an increased risk of CI. Our results showed that DeCo-B is a suitable tool for researching how modifiable risk and protective factors influence cognitive status. The complex interrelationships between variables should be further investigated and, for practical reasons, the questionnaire should be optimized in future work.