Itch is a cutaneous sensation that is critical in driving scratching behavior. The long-standing question of whether there are specific neurons for itch modulation inside the brain remains unanswered. Here, we report a subpopulation of itch-specific neurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) that is distinct from the pain-related neurons. Using a Tet-Off cellular labeling system, we showed that local inhibition or activation of these itch-specific neurons in the VLO significantly suppressed or enhanced itch-induced scratching, respectively, whereas the intervention did not significantly affect pain. Conversely, suppression or activation of pain-specific neurons in the VLO significantly affected pain but not itch. Moreover, fiber photometry and immunofluorescence verified that these itch- and pain-specific neurons are distinct in their functional activity and histological location. In addition, the downstream targets of itch- and pain-specific neurons were different. Together, the present study uncovers an important subpopulation of neurons in the VLO that specifically modulates itch processing.