I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

Papers: 23 Jul 2022 - 29 Jul 2022


Front Neurosci


β-Hydroxybutyrate Attenuates Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Restoration of the Aquaporin-4 Polarity in the Spinal Glymphatic System.


Waste removal is essential for maintaining homeostasis and the normal function of the central nervous system (CNS). The glymphatic system based on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels on the endfeet of astrocytes is recently discovered as the excretion pathway for metabolic waste products of CNS. In the CNS, α-syntrophin (SNTA1) directly or indirectly anchors AQP4 in astrocyte membranes facing blood vessels. Studies have indicated that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can raise the expression of SNTA1 and thus restoring AQP4 polarity in mice models with Alzheimer's disease. The study aims to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanism of BHB in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). PDN rats were modeled under a high-fat and high-glucose diet with a low dose of streptozotocin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to observe the clearance of contrast to indicate the functional variability of the spinal glymphatic system. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by paw withdrawal threshold. The expressions of SNTA1 and AQP4 were tested, and the polarity reversal of AQP4 protein was measured. As demonstrated, PDN rats were manifested with deceased contrast clearance of the spinal glymphatic system, enhanced mechanical allodynia, lower expression of SNTA1, higher expression of AQP4, and reversed polarity of AQP4 protein. An opposite change in the above characteristics was observed in rats being treated with BHB. This is the first study that demonstrated the neuroprotective mechanism of BHB to attenuate PDN restoration of the AQP4 polarity in the spinal glymphatic system and provides a promising therapeutic strategy for PDN.