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Papers of the Week

2022 Jul 08

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int

Topiramate potential neurotoxicity and mitigating role of ginger oil in mice brain.


Mabrouk DM, El Makawy AI, Ahmed KA, Ramadan M F, Ibrahim FM
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Jul 08.
PMID: 35802336.


Topiramate has multiple pharmacological mechanisms that are efficient in treating epilepsy and migraine. Ginger has been established to have gingerols and shogaols that cause migraine relief. Moreover, Topiramate has many off-label uses. Thus, it was necessary to explore the possible neurotoxicity of Topiramate and the role of ginger oil in attenuating the Topiramate neurotoxicity. Male albino mice were orally gavaged with Topiramate, ginger oil (400 mg/kg), and Topiramate plus ginger oil with the same pattern for 28 days. Oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were examined. Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Bax expression analysis were detected. The GABAAR subunits, Gabra1, Gabra3, and Gabra5 expression, were assessed by RT-qPCR. The investigation showed that Topiramate raised oxidative stress markers levels, neurotransmitters, TNF-α, and diminished glutathione (GSH). In addition, Topiramate exhibited various neuropathological alterations, strong Bax, and GFAP immune-reactivity in the cerebral cortex. At the same time, the results indicated that ginger oil had no neurotoxicity. The effect of Topiramate plus ginger oil alleviated the changes induced by Topiramate in the tested parameters. Both Topiramate and ginger oil upregulated the mRNA expression of gabra1 and gabra3, while their interaction markedly downregulated them. Therefore, it could be concluded that the Topiramate overdose could cause neurotoxicity, but the interaction with ginger oil may reduce Topiramate-induced neurotoxicity and should be taken in parallel.