The human gut microbiome can be altered with probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and anti-inflammatory foods and spices as part of an evidence-based strategy that targets inflammation and pain in common orthopedic conditions. Implementing these strategies avoids adverse effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and minimizes the potential for opioid use. This review focuses exclusively on human trials studying the effects of gut microbiome alterations to address pain and inflammatory markers in common orthopedic conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fractures/osteoporosis, and bone pain associated with chemotherapy. Individualized supplementation strategies can be further explored with the information in this review. [. 20XX;XX(X):xx-xx.].