The regeneration of the articular cartilage defects is characterized by the improvement in the quality of the repaired tissue and the reduction in the potential development of perifocal osteoarthritis (OA). Usually, the injection of dexamethasone (Dex) in the OA joints slows down the progression of inflammation and relieves pain. However, the anti-inflammatory Dex injected in the joint cavity is rapidly cleared, leading to a poor therapeutic effect. Multifunctional hydrogels with simultaneous chondrogenic differentiation, antioxidative, and anti-inﬂammatory capacities may represent a promising solution. Therefore, in this work, a novel injectable hydrogel based on double cross-linking of Schiff base bonds and coordination of catechol-Fe was developed. The obtained hydrogel (Gel-DA/DOHA/DMON@Dex@Fe) possessed molding performance in situ, excellent mechanical strength, controllable biodegradability, the on-demand release of the drug, and biocompatibility. The hydrogel system stimulated the HIF-1α signaling pathway and suppressed inflammation thanks to the introduction of DMON@Fe, consequently facilitating chondrogenic differentiation. The synergistic anti-inflammatory effect together with the induction of chondrogenesis by Dex-loaded Gel-DA/DOHA/DMON@Fe hydrogel allowed the promotion of cartilage repair, as demonstrated by experiments. Hence, the proposed multifunctional scaffold provides a promising advancement in articular cartilage tissue engineering and may have great prospects in the prevention of OA.