Migraine and glucose-related (glycaemic) traits (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and type 2 diabetes) are common and complex comorbid disorders that cause major economic and social burdens on patients and their families. Studies on the relationship between migraine and glucose-related traits have yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to synthesise and discuss the information from the available literature on the relationship between fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with migraine. Publications on migraine and fasting glucose, migraine and fasting insulin, and migraine and T2D were identified from a PubMed and Google Scholar database search and reviewed for this article. Multiple publications have suggested that the comorbidity of migraine and glucose-related traits may have a similar complex pathogenic mechanism, including impaired glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, reduced cerebrovascular reactivity, abnormal brain metabolism, shared genetic factors, neurotransmitters, and sex hormones. Furthermore, several studies have found a bi-directional link between migraine with insulin resistance and T2D. There is strong evidence for a biological association between migraine headache and glucose-related traits, and burgeoning evidence for shared genetic influences. Therefore, genetic research into these comorbid traits has the potential to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets and provide biological insight into their relationships. We encourage healthcare professionals to consider the co-occurrence of migraine with glucose-related traits in the evaluation and treatment of their patients.