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Papers of the Week

2022 May 20

AAPS PharmSciTech



Venlafaxine HCl Encapsulated in Niosome: Green and Eco-friendly Formulation for the Management of Pain.


Hashemi S M H, Enayatifard R, Akbari J, Saeedi M, Seyedabadi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Babaei A, Asare-Addo K, Nokhodchi A
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2022 May 20; 23(5):149.
PMID: 35595933.


The goal of this experimentation was to increase the cutaneous absorption of venlafaxine HCl (VFX) encapsulated in a niosome (venlasosme) produced by an ultrasonic approach. The impact of the cholesterol:surfactant (Chol:Surf) proportion was examined to modify the venlasosme properties. Photon correlation spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), SEM, DSC, and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the solid-state and morphology of VFX in the venlasosme. The studies revealed that increasing the level of Chol in the venlasosme increased the size of the particles. Alterations in the Chol to surfactant ratios (when Chol decreased from 2.5 to 0%) caused the zeta potential enhancement from 7.37 ± 0.67 to 15.53 ± 1.47 mV. The venlasosme with the highest cholesterol concentration (2.5%) had the highest encapsulation efficiency (approximately 63%). PXRD results revealed that VFX in venlasosme was in the amorphous form. The levels of VFX in the cutaneous layers and the receiver compartment were higher for the venlasosme gel than for VFX simple gel in the cutaneous permeability study and showed no cutaneous irritancy in rats. Furthermore, the venlasosme gel demonstrated significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory responses when compared to the control groups (VFX simple gel and diclofenac gel). The topical administration of the venlasosme gel also considerably increased the tail-flick and hot-plate response time when compared to the VFX simple gel, control groups, and diclofenac gel (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that niosomes can improve VFX efficacy as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory substance by improving the medicaments delivery to the specified site.