Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that inflicts intractable pain, a major problem that humanity faces, especially in aging populations. Stem cells have been used in the treatment of many chronic diseases, including OA. Cartilage progenitor/stem cells (CPSCs) are a type of stem cells with the ability to self- renew and differentiate. They hold a promising future for the understanding of the progression of OA and for its treatment. Previous studies have reported the relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, differentiation and aging. Mitochondrial dynamic and morphology change during stem cell differentiation.