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Front Pediatr


Dysmotility in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.


Chai C, Krishnan U
Front Pediatr. 2022; 10:853754.
PMID: 35295702.


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune mediated chronic inflammatory disease resulting from antigen exposure and is characterized by mucosal inflammation with eosinophils. Diagnosis is based on the histological finding of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field in esophageal biopsy specimens from upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. These endoscopies are usually performed in the setting of esophageal dysfunction, however, EoE can occasionally be incidentally diagnosed during endoscopies performed for other indications like coeliac disease. The eosinophilia is in the absence of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia (e.g., parasitic infection, esophageal leiomyomatosis or Crohn's disease). Presentation can be wide ranging and often varies according to age. Infants and younger children can present with choking/gagging, feed refusal, failure to thrive, irritability and vomiting. Older children and adults commonly present with dysphagia, chest pain or food bolus obstruction. EoE was first described in the 1970s, but was only recognized as a distinct disease entity in the 1990s. It has been rising in incidence and prevalence, with reported prevalence ranging between 1 in 2,500 and 1 in 10,000. Although the diagnosis of EoE is dependent on clear histopathologic diagnostic criteria, there is a disconnect between the degree of esophageal eosinophilia and symptom severity especially that of reported dysphagia. Multiple anatomical changes can be seen in the spectrum of presentations of EoE which explain dysphagia, including isolated strictures, diffuse trachealisation, fixed rings, including Schatzki, as well as tissue remodeling and fibrotic changes. However, a majority of EoE patients do not have any of these findings and will still often report ongoing dysphagia. Some will report ongoing dysphagia despite histological remission. This suggests an underlying esophageal dysmotilty which cannot be assessed with endoscopy or correlated with histological changes seen in biopsies. This review will describe the types of motor disturbances seen and their prevalence, the pathophysiological basis of dysmotility seen in EoE, how best to investigate esophageal dysfunction in EoE and the role of manometry in the management of EoE.