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Int J Womens Health


Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises, Foot Reflexology and Massage (BRM) on Maternal and Newborn Outcomes Among Primigravidae in Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.


Labor pain and anxiety are important concerns during labor, especially among the primigravidae. It may increase the duration of labor, increase stress hormones, and affect maternal and new-born related outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of combined breathing exercises, foot reflexology, and massage (BRM) interventions on labor pain, anxiety, labor duration, stress hormone levels, maternal satisfaction, maternal vital signs, and the new-born's APGAR scores.