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Papers of the Week

2021 Jun




A Rare Case of Renal Sarcoidosis.


Zia Z, Iqbal QZ, Ruggiero RA, Pervaiz S, Chalhoub M
Cureus. 2021 Jun; 13(6):e15494.
PMID: 34268026.


Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas in multiple organs. It most commonly involves lungs and it is very rare to find isolated cases affecting other organ systems with no associated pulmonary findings. We hereby present a case of a young 30-year-old male who was referred to the hospital by his primary medical doctor due to right eye pain secondary to iritis and acute kidney injury (AKI). His initial laboratory studies revealed anemia, AKI, mild hypercalcemia, and the urinary analysis revealed proteinuria. Imaging studies were negative and a kidney biopsy was performed and showed results from the biopsy that revealed diffuse tubulointerstitial disease with early fibrosis, widespread moderate inflammation, multifocal tubulitis, and focal aggregate of epithelioid cells suggestive of granuloma consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with prednisone. Renal involvement of sarcoidosis is extremely rare (around 0.7%). It has a wide spectrum of presentation including abnormal calcium metabolism, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with or without granulomas. This is a unique case as it shows renal sarcoidosis without coexisting pulmonary finding of hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray. There are very few reported cases of renal sarcoidosis in the literature and this case can add to the pool of those cases. It also emphasizes the need for urgent renal biopsy in the settings of AKI associated with mild to moderate proteinuria. Lack of availability of comprehensive research on the disease may lead to misdiagnosis and delay in treatment.