Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory disease hallmarked by intense pruritus and eczematous lesions. It depicts one of the most common skin diseases affecting a major part of children and several percentages of adults.Both pathogenesis and pathophysiology are based on complex orchestrated interactions of skin barrier defects, immunological changes, the environment, and an abundance of other contributing factors. Frequently, AE displays the starting point for other allergic diseases such as allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis. Additionally, the risk of developing food allergy is increased. Furthermore, the disease is accompanied by a susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. The development of new therapies received great impetus by an ample research of the pathophysiological mechanisms, leading to a new era in the treatment of severe atopic eczema due to targeted treatments, e.g. the IL-4R alpha specific monoclonal antibody dupilumab.This article provides an overview of the causative and pathophysiological characteristics, the clinical and diagnostic aspects as well as current and future therapeutical possibilities focusing allergic aspects contributing to the course of the disease.