Gamma-decanolactone (GD) has been shown to reduce epileptic behavior in different models, inflammatory decreasing, oxidative stress, and genotoxic parameters. This study assessed the GD effect on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model after acute and subchronic treatment. We evaluated the expression of the inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), GluN2B, a subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor, adenosine A1 receptor, and GD genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Male and female mice were treated with GD (300 mg/kg) for 12 days. On the tenth day, they were tested in the Hot Plate test. On the thirteenth day, all animals received PTZ (90 mg/kg), and epileptic behavior PTZ-induced was observed for 30 min. Pregabalin (PGB) (30 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Samples of the hippocampus and blood were collected for Western Blotting analyses and Comet Assay and bone marrow to the Micronucleus test. Only the acute treatment of GD reduced the seizure occurrence and increased the latency to the first stage 3 seizures. Males treated with GD for 12 days demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of the GluN2B receptor and a decrease in the COX-2 expression. Acute and subchronic treatment with GD and PGB reduced the DNA damage produced by PTZ in males and females. There is no increase in the micronucleus frequency in bone marrow after subchronic treatment. This study suggests that GD, after 12 days, could not reduce PTZ-induced seizures, but it has been shown to protect against DNA damage, reduce COX-2 and increase GluN2B expression.