Peripheral nerve injury induces long-term pro-inflammatory responses in spinal cord glial cells that facilitate neuropathic pain, but the identity of endogenous cells that resolve spinal inflammation has not been determined. Guided by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we found that MRC1 spinal cord macrophages proliferated and upregulated the anti-inflammatory mediator Cd163 in mice following superficial injury (SI; nerve intact), but this response was blunted in nerve-injured animals. Depleting spinal macrophages in SI animals promoted microgliosis and caused mechanical hypersensitivity to persist. Conversely, expressing Cd163 in spinal macrophages increased Interleukin 10 expression, attenuated micro- and astrogliosis, and enduringly alleviated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in nerve-injured animals. Our data indicate that MRC1 spinal macrophages actively restrain glia to limit neuroinflammation and resolve mechanical pain following a superficial injury. Moreover, we show that spinal macrophages from nerve-injured animals mount a dampened anti-inflammatory response but can be therapeutically coaxed to promote long-lasting recovery of neuropathic pain.