Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common factor in limiting therapy which can result in therapy cessation or dose reduction. Gabapentin, a calcium channel inhibitor, and duloxetine, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, are used to treat a variety of pain conditions such as chronic low back pain, postherpetic neuralgia, and diabetic neuropathy. It has been reported that administration of gabapentin suppressed oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Moreover, duloxetine has been shown to suppress oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats. However, the mechanisms by which these drugs prevent oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy remain unknown. Behavioral assays were performed using cold plate and the von Frey test. The expression levels of proteins were examined using western blot analysis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which gabapentin and duloxetine prevent oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in mice. We found that gabapentin and duloxetine prevented the development of oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced cold and mechanical allodynia. In addition, our results revealed that gabapentin and duloxetine suppressed extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the spinal cord of mice. Moreover, PD0325901 prevented the development of oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathic-like pain behavior by inhibiting ERK1/2 activation in the spinal cord of mice. In summary, our findings suggest that gabapentin, duloxetine, and PD0325901 prevent the development of oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathic-like pain behavior by inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation in mice. Therefore, inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation could be an effective preventive strategy against oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.