Although interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic condition causing bladder pain and urinary symptoms, effective treatments have not been established. The aim of this study was to adapt a chronic cystitis model in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which reflects IC/BPS pathology, and characterize the model's histological and behavioral effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of an α δ subunit ligand, gabapentin (GBP), on bladder hypersensitivity of rats with chronic cystitis. Cystitis models were created by repeated intravesical injections of LPS. In the histological examination, the LPS-injected group had greater inflammatory response, fibrosis, and abnormally thick re-epithelialization. In the LPS-injected group, LPS prompted hyperalgesia in both the lower abdomen and hind paw regions after day 1 of the first injection compared with the saline-injected controls, without any recovery for 21 days at least. During cystometry, the LPS-injected group showed bladder hyperactivity at all times. Systemic administration of GBP reduced cystitis-related pain due to chronic inflammation and reduced the increased frequency of voiding in the LPS-injected group. These results suggest that repeated intravesical injections of LPS induce long-lasting bladder inflammation, pain, and overactivity in rats, while GBP is effective in the management of those symptoms in this chronic cystitis model. The current study identifies a relatively simple method to develop an animal model for chronic cystitis and provides evidence that GBP may be an effective treatment option for patients with IC/BPS.