The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact, including on individuals with chronic pain. The social distancing policies necessary to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have involved increased levels of social isolation. This cross-sectional survey study examined pain severity and interference among individuals with chronic pain during an early phase of social distancing mandates, and identified characteristics of individuals who were most impacted. Approximately 4-8 weeks after social distancing mandates commenced in the state of Massachusetts, 150 patients with fibromyalgia, chronic spine and postsurgical pain completed demographic, pain, social distancing, and validated psychosocial questionnaires. Patients self-reported an overall significant increase in pain severity and pain interference, compared to before social distancing, although both pain severity and interference were quite variable among individuals under conditions of social distancing. Several demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were associated with greater pain severity and interference during social distancing. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated that female gender, non-white race, lower education, disability, fibromyalgia, and higher pain catastrophizing were independently associated with greater pain severity, while female gender and pain catastrophizing were independently associated greater pain interference. The findings suggest that individual differences among chronic pain patients should be considered in the planning, development, and prioritization of interventions to improve pain care and to prevent worsening of symptoms during the continuing COVID-19 pandemic.