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Papers of the Week

Papers: 12 Sep 2020 - 18 Sep 2020


Animal Studies


2020 Sep 15

Cell Mol Neurobiol

Exacerbated Headache-Related Pain in the Single Prolonged Stress Preclinical Model of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.


Chronic headache pain is one of the most commonly reported comorbid pain conditions with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and resistant to effective treatment, yet no combined preclinical model of the two disorders has been reported. Here, we used a modified chronic headache pain model to investigate the contribution of single prolonged stress (SPS) model of PTSD with sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hyperalgesia. Injection of SNP (2 mg/kg, i.p.) occurred every other day from day 7 to day 15 after initiation of SPS in rats. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to von Frey stimuli and tail flick latencies (TFL) dramatically decreased as early as 7 days after SPS and lasted until at least day 21. Basal PWT and TFL also significantly decreased during the SNP treatment period. The lower nociceptive thresholds recovered in 6 days following the final SNP injection in SNP group, but not in SPS + SNP group. Elevated nociceptin/OFQ (N/OFQ) levels observed in cerebrospinal fluid of SPS rats were even higher in SPS + SNP group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor mRNA expression increased in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) 21 days after SPS exposure; mRNA increases in the SPS/SNP group was more pronounced than SPS or SNP alone. GFAP protein expression was upregulated in trigeminal ganglia by SPS. Our results indicate that traumatic stress exaggerated chronic SNP-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, and that N/OFQ and activated satellite glia cells may play an important role in the interaction between both conditions.