Hyperalgesic priming is characterized by enhanced nociceptor sensitization by pronociceptive mediators, prototypically PGE . Priming has gained interest as a mechanism underlying the transition to chronic pain. Which stimuli induce priming and what cellular mechanisms are employed remains incompletely understood. In adult male rats, we present the cytokine Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family, as an inducer of priming by a novel mechanism. We used a high content microscopy based approach to quantify the activation of endogenous PKA-II and ERK of thousands sensory neurons in culture. Incubation with OSM increased and prolonged ERK activation by agents that increase cAMP production such as PGE , forskolin, and cAMP analogs. These changes were specific to IB4/CaMKIIα positive neurons, required protein translation, and increased cAMP-to-ERK signaling. In both, control and OSM-treated neurons, cAMP/ERK signaling involved RapGEF2 and PKA but not Epac. Similar enhancement of cAMP-to-ERK signaling could be induced by GDNF, which acts mostly on IB4/CaMKIIα-positive neurons, but not by NGF, which acts mostly on IB4/CaMKIIα-negative neurons. In vitro, OSM pretreatment rendered baseline TTX-R currents ERK-dependent and switched forskolin-increased currents from partial to full ERK-dependence in small/medium sized neurons. In summary, priming induced by OSM uses a novel mechanism to enhance and prolong coupling of cAMP/PKA to ERK1/2 signaling without changing the overall pathway structure.