Chronic pain is a leading cause of disability globally. Interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation (IMPR) targets pain with a bio-psycho-social approach, often delivered as composite programs. However, evidence of optimal program duration for the rehabilitation to succeed remains scarce. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different duration IMPR-programs-using within- and between-effects analyses in a pragmatic multicenter register-based controlled design. Using the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation, data from fifteen clinics specialized in chronic pain rehabilitation across Sweden were retrieved. Participants were patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who had taken part in short (4-9 weeks; = 924), moderate (10 weeks; = 1379), or long (11-18 weeks; = 395) IMPR programs. Longitudinal patient-reported outcome data were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at a 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were health-related quality of life, presented as perceived physical and mental health (SF-36). Secondary outcomes included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), pain intensity (NRS 0-10), the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), and perceived health (EQ-5D). Overall, all groups showed improvements. No clinically important effect emerged for different duration IMPR. In conclusion, while our results showed that patients following IMPR report improvement across a bio-psycho-social specter, a longer program duration was no more effective than a shorter one.