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Papers of the Week

Papers: 29 Aug 2020 - 4 Sep 2020

Animal Studies


Front Immunol


Secreted Osteoclastogenic Factor of Activated T Cells (SOFAT) Is Associated With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Joint Pain: Initial Evidences of a New Pathway.


Napimoga M H, Dantas Formiga W D, Ballassini Abdalla H, Trindade-da-Silva C A, Venturin C M, Martinez E F, Rossaneis A C, Verri WA, Clemente-Napimoga J T
Front Immunol. 2020; 11:1442.
PMID: 32849501.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an inflammatory milieu in the synovial compartment, which is regulated by a complex cytokine and chemokine network that induces continuously degenerative and inflammatory reactions. The secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT) is a unique cytokine and represents an alternative pathway for osteoclast activation. In this study, we examined whether SOFAT is able to induce joint pain and investigated the presence of SOFAT in a Collagen-induced Arthritis (CIA) model and in human subjects. Here, we found that an intra-articular stimulation with SOFAT (1, 10, 100, or 1,000 ng/10 μl) in the knee joint significantly decreases the mechanical threshold in the hind paw of mice ( < 0.05). Moreover, after a second injection of SOFAT, the mechanical threshold decrease was sustained for up to 8 days ( < 0.05). In the CIA model, the immunohistochemical assay of knee joint showed positivity stained for SOFAT, and the mRNA and protein expression of SOFAT were significantly higher in the affected-group ( < 0.05). Besides, the mRNA of RANKL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-15 were significantly higher in the affected-group ( < 0.05). Finally, SOFAT was detected in the synovial fluid of RA patients, but not in OA patients ( < 0.05). In conclusion, SOFAT is up regulated in inflammatory milieu such as RA but not in non-inflammatory OA. SOFAT may be a novel molecule in the complex inflammatory phenotype of RA.