Recently, the research on pain-related disability has increasingly paid attention to the psychological and social factors that may influence the biological condition. In the current study, we aimed to explore attachment styles, self-esteem, and quality of life in individuals with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Participants were 371 diagnosed women, with a mean age of 42.7 years (standard deviation = 10.6). The average number of years since diagnosis was 7.4 years (standard deviation = 2.4) years. To assess attachment, quality of life, and self-esteem, women responded, respectively, to the Relationship Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory. Our results showed that secure attachment relationships and high self-esteem represent protective factors for quality of life of women with fibromyalgia, while the contrary emerged for insecure attachments and low self-esteem. The understanding of the psychological components that contribute to fibromyalgia may improve the effectiveness of interventions.