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Papers of the Week

2020 Jul

Indian J Tuberc



A case of extra pulmonary tuberculosis misdiagnosed as granulomatosis with polyangitis: Presenting with occipital condylar syndrome.


Darshani AGS, Sathischandra DHHL, Perera MNSK
Indian J Tuberc. 2020 Jul; 67(3):393-396.
PMID: 32825877.


Sri Lanka is a tuberculosis (TB) prevalent country with an incidence of 8886 cases in 2016 of which 30% were extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). These figures may be an underestimation, considering the diagnostic challenge of EPTB due to its diverse presentations and difficulty in microbiological confirmation. Here we describe a case of EPTB which was first diagnosed as granulomatosis with polyangitis when he presented with fever, anorexia, wasting, large joint pains, cervical pain, erythema nodosum, high inflammatory markers with strongly positive Mantoux reaction and, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis in the cervical region. Immunosuppression with methotrexate 15 mg weekly and prednisolone 30 mg daily, achieved resolution of symptoms and the inflammatory markers. After about 4 months on tailing off prednisolone, he developed fever, anorexia, wasting and worsening occipital pain which evolved in to occipital condylar syndrome causing hypoglossal nerve palsy. With the aid of serial radiological, histopathological and bacteriological investigations, he was eventually diagnosed to have EPTB involving the left base of the skull with upper mediastinal lymphadenitis. This case highlights the importance to have a high index of suspicion to diagnose EPTB, especially in a country with a high prevalence of TB and to revise the diagnosis with a close follow up to avoid disastrous consequences associated with misdiagnosis.