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2020 Jul 30

Surg Infect (Larchmt)

Intestinal Aspergillosis: Systematic Review on Patterns of Clinical Presentation and Management.


Yelika S B, Tumati A, Denoya P
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2020 Jul 30.
PMID: 32758013.


Intestinal aspergillosis (IA) is a rare entity primarily discovered in immunocompromised patients. Because of its low incidence, IA is not considered routinely in the differential of abdominal pain, distension, and diarrhea. A systematic characterization of demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentations, and outcomes can help surgeons recognize and manage IA in critically ill patients. Two independent authors carried out the literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases. The Mesh terms utilized were: 'intestinal' and 'aspergillosis' combined with the Boolean operator 'AND' (synonyms were combined with the Boolean operator 'OR'). Intestinal aspergillosis was defined as inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (duodenum to rectum) caused by spp. All articles reporting IA were included. Articles describing aspergillosis of the esophagus or stomach were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Forty-two articles reporting 56 cases were included in the study. Mean age was 44.9 ± 20.5 years. Male to female ratio was 29:27. The most common condition in patients who developed IA was transplantation (19 patients; 34%). The most common clinical presentations of IA were abdominal pain (21 patients; 38%) and diarrhea 12 patients; 21%). Sixty-six percent of patients had primary IA whereas 34% developed IA secondarily to systemic infection. Diagnostic modalities included exploratory laparotomy (35 patients; 63%) and endoscopy (7 patients; 13%). Mean time to diagnosis was 8.6 ± 11.3 days. Intestinal aspergillosis was limited to the small bowel in 61% of patients. In 43 (77%) patients, bowel resection is the definitive treatment, whereas 13 (23%) patients underwent antifungal therapy alone. Mortality rate was 39%. Sixty-three percent of patients treated with surgery survived, compared with 46% treated with antifungal therapy alone (p = 0.34). Intestinal aspergillosis is a life-threatening condition with a mortality rate of 39%. Extrapulmonary IA is seen in patients with neutropenia, sepsis, inflammatory conditions, and immunosuppression. Patients who undergo surgery are more likely to survive this infection.