The role of Mu opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated regulation of GABA transmission in opioid reward is well established. Much less is known about MOR-mediated regulation of glutamate transmission in the brain and how this relates to drug reward. We previously found that MORs inhibit glutamate transmission at synapses that express the Type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2). We created a transgenic mouse that lacks MORs in vGluT2-expressing neurons (MORflox-vGluT2cre) to demonstrate that MORs on the vGluT2 neurons themselves mediate this synaptic inhibition. We then explored the role of MORs in vGluT2-expressing neurons in opioid-related behaviors. In tests of conditioned place preference, MORflox-vGluT2cre mice did not acquire place preference for a low dose of the opioid, oxycodone, but displayed conditioned place aversion at a higher dose, whereas control mice displayed preference for both doses. In an oral consumption assessment, these mice consumed less oxycodone and had reduced preference for oxycodone compared with controls. MORflox-vGluT2cre mice also failed to show oxycodone-induced locomotor stimulation. These mice displayed baseline withdrawal-like responses following the development of oxycodone dependence that were not seen in littermate controls. In addition, withdrawal-like responses in these mice did not increase following treatment with the opioid antagonist, naloxone. However, other MOR-mediated behaviors were unaffected, including oxycodone-induced analgesia. These data reveal that MOR-mediated regulation of glutamate transmission is a critical component of opioid reward.