Introduction As total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) transition to outpatient settings, appropriate pain management remains a challenge. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may subvert the need for postoperative opioids. This study evaluated: 1) total opioid consumption; 2) postoperative pain intensity; 3) discharge destination; 4) length of stay (LOS); and 5) THA and TKA patients' satisfaction in receiving adjunctive intravenous (IV) diclofenac or ketorolac. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, patients scheduled to undergo primary THA or TKA by a single surgeon between March 2017 and April 2018 were identified. Patients were stratified based on the receipt of IV diclofenac (THA: n = 25; TKA: n = 51) or IV ketorolac (THA: n = 28; TKA: n = 32) in addition to the standard pain management regimen. Student's t-testing and Chi-square were used to analyze continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Results TKA diclofenac patients had lower opioid consumption 12 hours postoperatively (p: 0.037). TKA patients in the diclofenac cohort were discharged to home less often (p: 0.025). Both diclofenac cohorts had greater patient satisfaction than the ketorolac cohorts (p: <0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in postoperative pain intensity at 24 or 48 hours or in the length of stay (p: >0.05 for all). Conclusion This study demonstrated that both TKA and THA patients treated with IV diclofenac had no difference in postoperative pain intensity while THA patients had no difference in opioid consumption relative to those treated with IV ketorolac. Further comparison of IV NSAIDs with other IV pain medications may provide broader insight into the ideal management for postoperative pain for this widening patient population.