A 50-year-old woman presented with right back pain, low fever, leukocytosis, a high level of C-reactive protein and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hypodense lesion in the right suprarenal region, while PET/CT showed mildly increased metabolic activity. A CT-guided percutaneous puncture was performed, and foul-smelling thick pus was removed, which indicated an anaerobic infection. A smear of the pus showed both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Traditional culture only detected and . While surprisingly, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of both the pus and blood showed high reads of multiple pathogens, including anaerobes and the three culture-positive pathogens. Thus, adrenal gland abscess was confirmed, and a combination therapy of catheter drainage and effective antimicrobial treatment was started. Six days later, the patient had clinically improved and mNGS showed dramatically decreased reads of all pathogens. A follow-up lab examination of inflammatory biomarkers was normal, and the adrenal mass was reduced radiographically.