Xanthii Fructus is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of sinusitis and headache,rich in medicinal materials and is widely used for more than 1 800 years. Modern pharmacological studies have showed that Xanthii Fructus has anti-inflammatory,analgesic,anti-tumor,anti-bacterial,hypoglycemic,anti-allergic,immunomodulatory and other pharmacological effects,which can be commonly used in the treatment of diseases relating to immune abnormalities,such as rheumatoid arthritis,acute and chronic rhinitis,allergic rhinitis,and skin diseases,with a high medicinal value. Toxicological studies have shown that Xanthii Fructus poisoning can cause substantial damage to organs,such as the liver,kidney,and gastrointestinal tract,especially to liver. Because of the coexisting of its efficacy and toxicity,Xanthii Fructus often leads to a series of safety problems in the clinical application process. This study attempts to summarize its characteristics of adverse reactions,analyze the root cause of the toxicity of Xanthii Fructus from such aspects as processing,dose,course of treatment and eating by mistake,discuss the substance of its efficacy/toxicity from chemical compositions,and put forward exploratory thinking about how to promote its clinical rational application from the aspects such as strict processing,reasonable compatibility,medication information,contraindication,strict control of the dose,and course of treatment,so as to promote the safe and reasonable application of Xanthii Fructus.