Placebo analgesia studies generally reported that the actual use of a placebo analgesic reduces pain. Yeung VW, Geers A, Kam SM. Merely possessing a placebo analgesic reduced pain intensity: Preliminary findings from a randomized design. Curr Psychol. 2019;38(1):194-203 found that the mere possession (without use) of a placebo analgesic also reduces pain.