Opioids have been used to treat pain and invoke pleasure for centuries. Modern scientific advancements have led to more potent, synthetic opioids. While certainly more effective in treating pain, they can also be much more addictive. Over the years the scientific community has developed a clearer understanding of the role opioid receptors play in causing and treating opioid use disorders (OUD) and we now know that OUD can develop in individuals taking opioids for "legitimate" pain. Current guidelines suggest that all prescribers (especially those prescribing opioids) be capable treating OUD. Pharmacological advances have led to a wide array of safe and effective treatment options to address OUDs. This paper will discuss the history of opioid development, what is known about the transition from analgesic uses to addiction and modern evidenced based treatment strategies to address OUDs.