The mechanical head-withdrawal threshold (MHWT) was significantly reduced following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX) in rats. Nitrate and nitrite synthesis was dramatically increased in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) at 6 h after the IANX. The relative number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly higher in IANX rats compared to sham-operated and N-propyl-L-arginine (NPLA)-treated IANX rats. On day 3 after NPLA administration, the MHWT recovered considerably in IANX rats. Following L-arginine injection into the TG, the MHWT was significantly reduced within 15 min, and the mean number of TG cells encircled by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IR cells was substantially higher. The relative number of nNOS-IR cells encircled by GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased in IANX rats. In contrast, after NPLA injection into the TG, the relative number of GFAP-IR cells was considerably reduced in IANX rats. Fluorocitrate administration into the TG significantly reduced the number of GFAP-IR cells and prevented the MHWT reduction in IANX rats. The present findings suggest that following IANX, satellite glial cells are activated via nitric oxide (NO) signaling from TG neurons. The spreading satellite glial cell activation within the TG results in mechanical hypersensitivity of face regions not directly associated with the trigeminal nerve injury.