Chronic neuropathic pain associated with peripheral neuropathies cannot be attributed solely to lesions of peripheral sensory axons and likely involves alteration in the processing of nociceptive information in the central nervous system in most patients. Few data are available regarding EEG correlates of chronic neuropathic pain. The fact is that effective cortical neuromodulation strategies to treat neuropathic pain target the precentral cortical region, i.e. a cortical area corresponding to the motor cortex. It is not known how these strategies might modulate brain rhythms in the central cortical region, but it can be speculated that sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) are modified. Another potent way of modulating cortical rhythms is to use EEG-based neurofeedback (NFB). Rare studies previously aimed at relieving neuropathic pain using EEG-NFB training.