Dermatological manifestations are common in systemic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease. The present study investigated the clinical features and possible influencing factors of pruritus in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). A total of 382 inpatients were enrolled from the Department of Nephrology at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. A total of 138 subjects were hemodialysis patients, 41 were peritoneal dialysis patients, and 203 were chronic renal failure patients. The patients' clinical performance was observed, and the data was recorded for analysis. The prevalence of pruritus in hemodialysis patients was greater than that in peritoneal dialysis patients. A total of 187 patients were accompanied by xerodermia and 109 patients had pruritus at the same time. With effective and regular dialysis, pruritus could be alleviated in 40% of patients. The intensity of pruritus in the enrolled patients ranged from mild itching to irritability during day and night periods. Moreover, pruritus was intermittent or persistent, and/or limited to generalized. Following treatment, 35% of patients had poor results. A significant difference was noted in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum phosphorus, calcium × phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) between patients with pruritus and non-pruritus. Xerodermia is a common skin manifestation in patients with chronic renal failure and is associated with the occurrence of pruritus. Local cold and heat stimulation can relieve pruritus to some extent, and adequate hemodialysis can also relieve itching.