A 76-year-old man with a history of hypertension was admitted with high fever and left scrotal pain. Laboratory findings revealed high serum C-reactive protein levels. The left epididymis appeared to be swollen on computed tomography. The patient was diagnosed with bacterial epididymitis and treatment with antibiotics was initiated. Despite treatment, his left scrotal pain and fever did not improve. Additionally, he developed right scrotal and posterior neck pain. For histopathological diagnosis, a left high orchiectomy was performed and the findings revealed thickened arteriolar walls with infiltration of inflammatory cells around the testis, leading to a final diagnosis of systemic polyarteritis nodosa. Treatment with steroids led to complete resolution of the patient's systemic pain and inflammation.